Introduction to Information Technology - Syllabus

Embark on a profound academic exploration as you delve into the Introduction to Information Technology course (IIT) within the distinguished Tribhuvan university's BIT department. Aligned with the BIT Curriculum, this course (BIT101) seamlessly merges theoretical frameworks with practical sessions, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the subject. Rigorous assessment based on a 60 + 20 + 20 marks system, coupled with a challenging passing threshold of , propels students to strive for excellence, fostering a deeper grasp of the course content.

This 3 credit-hour journey unfolds as a holistic learning experience, bridging theory and application. Beyond theoretical comprehension, students actively engage in practical sessions, acquiring valuable skills for real-world scenarios. Immerse yourself in this well-structured course, where each element, from the course description to interactive sessions, is meticulously crafted to shape a well-rounded and insightful academic experience.

Course Description: This course covers basic concepts of computers, computer hardware, memory, input/output devices, computer software, data representation, database, computer networks, internet, computer security and applications of IT.

Course Objectives: The main objective of this course is to provide basic knowledge of fundamental concepts of computer system and Information Technology.


Introduction to Computer

1.1 Introduction of Computer

Definition and use of computers.

1.3 Characteristics ofComputer

Characteristics of computer (Speed, accuracy, diligence, storage capability, versatility)

1.4 History of Computer

History of computing of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today.

1.5 Generations of Computer

Generations of computers from first to fifth with varying hardware and software technologies.

1.2 Digital and Analog Computers

Definition and uses of digital and analog computers with example. Differences between digital, analog and hybrid computers.

1.6 Classification of Computer based on size

Classification of computers based on size and type: super-computer, mainframe-computer, minicomputer, micro-computer. Characteristics of each class.

1.7 The Computer System

The computer system and their components (Hardware, software, data, users)

1.8 Application of Computers

Applications of computers in different sectors like education, health, agriculture, entertainment, scientific research, sports etc

Computer Hardware

A ] 2.1 Introduction

2.2 CentralProcessing Unit;Components of CPU

CPU and its functions. Different components of CPU (arithmetic logic unit, registers, control unit)

2.4 Instruction Format

What is instruction format? Concept of operation code and operand code.

2.5 Instruction Set

Definition and example of instruction set.

2.6 Instruction Cycle

What is Instruction cycle? Fetching, decoding, executing, and storing steps of instruction cycle.

2.7 Microprocessor

RISC and CISC based architecture. Concept of pipeline and parallel processing.

2.8 Computer Bus

Concept and types of bus. Concept of expansion slots and ports.

2.10 Components of Computer Cabinet (Power Supply, Motherboard, memory chips, expansion slots, ports and interface, processor, cables and Storage devices)

Different components inside a computer cabinet like motherboard, ports and interfaces, expansion slots, memory chips, processor, hard disk etc.

B]Computer memory

3.2 Memory Representation

Description of bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte and terabyte and Concept of memory organization as a linear array of locations for storing data.

3.3 Memory Hierarchy

Memory hierarchy from registers to magnetic tape.

3.4 CPU Register

Description of CPU registers as working memory.

3.5 Cache Memory

Description cache memory and its levels.

3.6 Primary Memory (RAM, ROM)

What is primary memory? Different types of primary memory.

3.7 Secondary Memory (Magnetic Tape;Magnetic Disk;Optical Disk;Magneto-Optical Disk, Flash Memory Device)

Secondary memory and their types. Working characteristics and features of Magnetic Tape, Magnetic Disk, Optical Disk, Magneto- Optical Disk, Flash Memory Device

3.8 Access types of storage devices (sequential and direct)

Definition and characteristics of Sequential access and direct access devices.

C]Input and Output Devices

4.2 Input-Output Unit;

Definition, uses of input/output devices and how it works.

4.3,4.4,4.5  Input Devices (Human Data Entry Devices; Source Data Entry Devices)

Definition of Human Data Entry Devices and Source Data Entry Devices. Features and description of Human data entry devices (Keyboard, pointing devices—Mouse, trackball, joystick, digitizing tablet, Pick devices—Light pen, touch screen)

Features and description of Source data entry devices (Audio input device (microphone, sound card, speech recognition), Video input device (video camera, digital camera), Optical input devices—Scanner (hand held, flat bed), OCR, MICR, OMR, barcode reader

4.6 Output Devices (Hard copy devices; Soft copy devices)

Definition, uses of output devices and how it works. Classification and functional details of Output devices (Hard copy and soft copy devices).

4.7 I/O Port

Use of I/O ports, types I/O ports

4.8 I/O System

Explain the working of I/O system—I/O devices, device controller, device driver, Application Programs.

Computer Software

 A .6.1 Introduction

6.2 Types of Software

Classification of software (System software and Application software)

6.3 System Software

Functionality and purpose of system software

6.3.2 , 6.3.3 Device Driversand Utility software

Function and example of Device Drivers and Utility software.

6.3.4 Programming Languages

Definition and categories of Programming Languages. Different Generations of Programming Languages.

6.3.5 Language Translators: assembler, compiler

Different kind of translator software (Assembler, Compiler, and Interpreter) and function of each.

6.4 Application Software

Functionality and purpose of application software

B. Operating System

7.1 Introduction

Explain the need of operating system in the computer system

7.2 Objectives of Operating System

Main key Objectives of Operating System

7.3 Types of OS

Single user and single task, single user and multitasking, multiuser, multiprocessing, real time, embedded OS

7.4 Functions of OS

Process management, memory management, file management, device management, protection and security, user interface

7.5 Process Management

Process—Process states (new, ready, running, waiting, terminated)

CPU scheduling—Scheduler, scheduling algorithms (FCFS, SJF, RR)

Process synchronization—Concurrent processes, race condition

Deadlock—Deadlock conditions, deadlock prevention, deadlock avoidance

7.6 Memory Management

 Memory allocation—Multiple partition allocation, paging

 Virtual memory—Demand paging

 7.7 File Management

 Files, directory structure

 7.8 Device Management

 Device drivers, I/O scheduling, buffering, spooling

 7.9 Protection and Security

 Protection mechanism of programs, processes, users and to the   resources.

 7.10 User Interface


 7.11 Examples of Operating Systems

 MS-DOS, Windows family of OS, Linux

Software Licensing

Licensing policy concept of software.

Open-Source Software

Definition and benefits of using Open-Source software

Case study: Unix Vs Windows

Difference between Unix and Windows operating system in various aspects.

Data Representation

5.1 Introduction

What are various kinds of data stored in computer (Numeric, Alphabetic, Alphanumeric, symbol. Different number systems (Decimal number system, Binary number system, Octal number system, and Hexadecimal number system.

5.2 Number System

Representation of various number systems.

5.3 Conversion from Decimal to Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal

Method used for Conversion from Decimal to Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal

5.4 Conversion of Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal to Decimal

Method used for Conversion of Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal to Decimal

5.5 Conversion of Binary to Octal, Hexadecimal

Method used for Conversion of Binary to Octal, Hexadecimal

5.6 Conversion of Octal, Hexadecimal to Binary

Method used for Conversion of Octal, Hexadecimal to Binary

5.7 Binary Arithmetic

Binary arithmetic operations—addition, subtraction of signed and unsigned numbers.

Computer Networks and Internet Services

9.1 Introduction

Brief background about data communication and the computer networks and their importance.

9.2 Importance of Networking

Resource sharing, information sharing, as a communication medium, back-up and support

9.3 Data Transmission Media (Twisted pair, coaxial cable, Optical fiber, RF transmission, microwave transmission, satellite transmission)

Twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber, RF transmission, microwave transmission, satellite transmission

9.4 Data Transmission across Media

o Transmission modes—Simplex, halfduplex, full- duplex

o Transmission speed—Bandwidth, throughput, attenuation, distortion

o Fundamentals of transmission—

Electromagnetic waves, signals

▪ Analog and digital signals

▪ Modulation and demodulation—

 Amplitude, frequency, phase shift

▪ Multiplexing—FDM, WDM

▪ Asynchronous and synchronous transmission

9.5 Data Transmission and Data Networking

Switching - Circuit switching, message switching, packet switching

9.6.1 Network Types

Switching - Circuit switching, message switching, packet switching

9.5 Network Types

o Network types—LAN, MAN, WAN

9.6.2 Network Topology

o Network topologies—Bus, ring, star

9.6.3 Communication Protocol

o Communication protocol—The seven layers of OSI model

9.6.4 Network Devices

o Network devices—NIC, repeater, bridge, hub, switch, router, gateway

9.7 Wireless Networking

Bluetooth technology, wireless LAN, wireless WAN

B. Internet

10.2 History of Internet

TCP/IP, Internet applications, WWW, browser

10.3 Internetworking Protocol


10.4 The Internet Architecture

Client, local ISP, regional ISP, backbone

10.5 Managing the Internet


10.7 Internet Connections

Dial-up access, leased line, ISDN, DSL, cable modem

10.8 Internet Address; WWW, Domain Name System

WWW, Domain Name System

10.9 Internet Services;E-mail and its working principle; E-commerce and E-governance,

o WWW—Web browser, URL, Internet search engines, WWW development languages

o Electronic mail—E-mail address, e-mail message format, e-mail services (application

o based e-mail, webmail), how email works (client-server model)

o File transfer protocol—How FTP works (client- server model)

o Terminal network

o News

o Internet relay chat


What is Web? Explain web2.0 Ver

Internet of Things (IoT)

What is Internet of Things (IoT)?

Wearable computing

What is Wearable computing?

Cloud computing

Cloud computing and it’s importance
Smart City

Smart cities vs ICT and it’s importance

Case Study: ISP in Nepal and their services

Case Study: ISP in Nepal and their services

Database Systems


What is Database, DBMS and RDBMS?
12.2 Database

o File-oriented approach and database approach

o Characteristics of database approach

o Data models, schemas and instances

o Conceptual data model—Entity, attribute, relationship, and E-R model

o Representation data model—Hierarchical, network, relational data model

o Low level, or physical data model

12.3 Database System

o Components of database system— Users, software, hardware, and data

o Architecture of database system—Internal level, conceptual level, and external level

Database Management System

o Data independence—Logical data independence, physical data independence

o Data dictionary, Database Administrator (DBA)

o Database languages—DDL, and DML

12.5 Database System Architectures

o Centralized DBMS architecture, client-server architecture, and distributed database

Database Applications

Different purposes like (1) personal databases; (2) workgroup databases (3) departmental databases and (4) enterprisedatabases

Introduction to Data Warehousing

Concept of Data Warehouse

Data mining

Concept of Data mining


Concept of BigData

Computer Security

14.1 Introduction (Security attacks, security mechanisms, security services

Background about why we require Computer security with different types of security attacks, mechanism available and various services provided by a system.

14.2 Security Threat and Security Attack

Difference between Security Threat and Security Attack. Types of security attack.

14.3 Malicious Software

Virus, worm, trojan horse, JavaScript, java applet, ActiveX control

14.5 Security Services

Confidentiality, integrity, authentication, non- repudiation

14.6 Security Mechanisms (Cryptography, Digital Signature, Firewall, Users Authentication, Intrusion Detection Systems)

o Cryptography—Secret key cryptography, public-key cryptography, hash function

o Digital signature—Digital signature algorithms

o Firewall—Functions of firewall, working principle, types of firewall (packet filter firewall,

o circuit filter firewall, proxy or application-level firewall)

o Users’ identification and authentication—User name and password, smart card,

o biometrics

o Other security measures—Intrusion detection systems, virus protection software, data

o and information backups, SSL, IPsec protocol

14.12 Security Awareness

Security awareness to enhance the security of the organization’s resources by improving the awareness of the need to secure the system resources.

14.13 Security Policy 

Formulating a security policy

Application and Impact of IT

Application of IT

Describe what is IT and explain various areas where IT can use.

Impact of IT on organization and individuals

Explain how technology and information systems are essential to maintaining, supporting, and enriching many aspects of the lives of individuals, operations of organizations. Explain both Positive and negative impact.

Societal impacts of IT

Explain society and how technology and information systems influencing many aspects of societies.

IT Strategic Planning

Explain the concept of organization Strategic Planning and IT strategic planning to meet organization strategic objectives and business goals.

T and Business Alignment

Explain how IT Operational or tactical (getting technology in place) align with the business objectives and to drive business results.

Lab works